A charged battery weighs more, but it is very small amount that a human would not notice. In this video the difference measured was negligible. Note that an electron weighs a very tiny amount of ~ 9 * 10^-28 gram.
The mass of the battery isn’t affected by the electrons but by the different electrostatic potential energies relative to the nuclei. However, the change in mass isn’t because of increased protons or electrons because the battery has a fixed number of protons and electrons, meaning that it is electrically neutral.
The change in mass of the recharged battery is so minimal it cannot be measured easily. To weigh the mass needs caution of the highest order, which is only possible using a nuclear battery with more concentrated energy.
The energy equation is E=mc2 and therefore m=E/c2 showing that change in energy directly impacts mass. It has been realized that in a thermonuclear power plant, the hydrogen at the end of the process is lighter than it was initially.
Do electricity have mass?
Electricity has different components, but none of them has mass. Electricity is a result of the movement of charged electrons. These electrons are already existing in the conductor and therefore have no impact on the mass. The mass or weight of conduct remains the same even after current flows through them.
Additionally, the electric force repelling the charged particles does not have any significance because forces have no mass. The only possible situation is in the case of a static buildup charge. However, the weight of electrons is negligible.
How do batteries charge?
When the battery is fully charged, the negative electrode releases electrons because of the oxidation reaction when the circuit is complete. The anode, because it has more extra electrons, it frees them to the positive electrode. The oxidation reaction differs because of the different types of electrodes used.
The electrolyte helps to control the flow of electrons as it separates the two electrodes. Moreover, it aids in the reaction process.
As the electrons are released from the anode, they are received in the cathode through a reduction reaction that occurs at the cathode. These reactions continue until there are no more electron transfers, and the battery is considered to be empty.
The electrolyte used in the battery determines whether the battery can be charged or not. For primary battery or alkaline battery, the reverse reaction cannot take place. Any attempt would be destructive. Contra-wise, secondary batteries allow reserved reactions to occur many times.
Charging restores the battery to a reusable state. The battery is induced to a chemical reaction that extracts electrons from the cathode back to the anode. The reaction occurs in a reserved pattern. The oxidation reaction takes place at the cathode, while reduction happens at the anode.
The electrolyte maintains equilibrium without any reaction and ensures that the reverse reaction is only triggered by electrons sent from the external power. When there are no more electrons to be transferred to the anode, the battery is fully charged. The electrolyte gets overused with time, and it becomes impossible to hold a charge.
Completing the circuit connecting the battery terminals to the external conductors allows the reaction to occur, and free-energy difference occurs because the high–energy is converted to lower power, and the result is electric current flowing through the conductor.
The internal resistance of the battery is low, but it increases as the charge diminishes. The voltage released from the electrodes is influenced by the reaction that takes place.
Battery capacity is the rated voltage of the amount of charge. A battery rated 200 Ah can deliver 10 Ah over 20 hours at room temperature. Batteries that discharge at a fast rate have a low capacity compared to those discharging at a lower rate.
There are two categories of batteries: primary batteries and secondary batteries. Primary batteries cannot be recharged after they have been used. They are thrown away, while secondary batteries can be recharged and reused.
Batteries differ in size and design. Small batteries can be used in cell phones, medium ones used in vehicles, and large ones are used as power backups in big plants. Their designs are also different, some are lead-acid batteries, single cells, and others use lithium-ion.
Batteries can self-discharge at room temperature. A chemical reaction occurs even when the battery is not being used or connected to any load, reducing the charge stored in that battery. The environmental factors affect the capacity of the battery, such as temperature, physical shocks.
The storage of a battery can be maintained or extended by keeping the battery at a low temperature. Low temperatures lower the rate of reactions that occur within the battery.
The battery has many benefits and has made our lives easy because it has been a supplementing technology. However, batteries should be handled with care. The materials used to make batteries components such as the electrolytes and electrodes are zinc, mercury, lead, and alkaline which are corrosive and poisonous. They are harmful to our health and need to be handled with a lot of care to avoid accidents.
Additionally, the waste materials from these materials have an adverse effect on the environment. They should be disposed of in the right way and with much care. In some countries, they have regulations and laws regulating the disposal of these waste products relating to battery manufacturing companies.
A battery is a device with a collection of cells that convert chemical energy when they react to produce a flow of electrons. Batteries have three essential elements: the negative side is the anode, the cathode is the positive side, and an electrolyte which aids in the reaction process.
Many batteries don’t produce voltage; they are used to store charge. When a circuit is complete, anode and cathode are connected, a reaction occurs between them and the chemical producing electrons that flow to the cathode. The battery is discharged when the reaction stops.
The battery has helped reduce energy problems by aiding us to store electrical energy in a portable container. Without batteries, our technology would be lame because many devices and machines such as phones, vehicles, and big plants use batteries. The need for a battery has been there for years and of great help to further our technology.