When sunlight hits the solar panel, the semiconductor in the solar PV cell, energy from the light in the form of photons is absorbed, creating a flow an electric field. The electric field flow flows on the edge of the panel into a conductive wire, which transfers the electricity into an inverter.
Here, the electrical current is transformed from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), which then power electrical appliance.
The science behind solar photovoltaic panels transforming light into usable electricity may seem complicated, but it is very simple. The solar panel comprises of several small photovoltaic cells.
Photo photovoltaic cells are simply cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The cells are made of semiconductive materials (mostly silicon) that conduct electricity while at the same time maintain the electrical imbalance needed to create an electric field.