Medieval Armored Combat

You can see full contact steel fighting at outdoor festivals.

You will be amazed to see men in steel suits getting wrecked and bones broken.

They use weapons like swords and defend with shields. They wear plate armor covering entire body but still get hurt.

Here are some photos:

The weapons are heavy and hurt when you get hit.


The sword is real

Crowds gather to watch

For the competition there are 3 rounds, 1 min each, with 1 min rest. You get points for strikes, falls, and disarms.

Weapons weigh 2 to 3 kg. Shield weigh less than 5 kg. Pole axe, great swords, long axe, sword and shield are used.


They fight one on one.


Real fighting with steel axes, maces, and swords.


Full contact steel fighting

  1. Armor: Participants are required to wear historically accurate, full-body steel armor that offers protection against the force of the blunt weapons used in the sport. The armor is often custom-made and can be quite heavy, weighing between 60-100 pounds (27-45 kilograms).
  2. Weapons: Blunt steel weapons are used to replicate the experience of medieval combat without causing serious injuries. Popular weapon choices include swords, maces, axes, and polearms. The weapons are designed to minimize the risk of injury while still allowing for realistic combat.
  3. Techniques: Full contact steel fighting incorporates historical martial arts techniques, including grappling, striking, and weapon handling. Participants are often required to study and train in historical fighting styles to compete effectively.
  4. Competition formats: There are various formats for full contact steel fighting competitions, ranging from one-on-one duels to larger team battles known as “bohurts” or “melees.” In team battles, fighters work together to defeat their opponents, often using tactics and strategies reminiscent of historical warfare.
  5. Organizations and events: Several organizations oversee full contact steel fighting competitions, such as the International Medieval Combat Federation (IMCF) and the Historical Medieval Battle International Association (HMBIA). These organizations host national and international events, including the annual Battle of the Nations tournament, which attracts fighters from around the world.


The shield is only defense



The crowds of people love to watch these matches.

Q: Did everyone use weapons in medieval times? A: Not everyone was running around with a sword like a character from a fantasy novel. Peasants, for example, often used tools as weapons, such as pitchforks or scythes. And let’s not forget the most powerful weapon of all – words! Medieval monarchs, lords, and clergy often used diplomacy, threats, and promises to achieve their goals without ever drawing a sword.

Q: Were there any unconventional weapons used during the Middle Ages? A: Medieval warfare wasn’t all swords and shields. Some warriors used flails, which were essentially spiked balls on a chain, while others favored the halberd, a mix between a spear and an axe. Then there were siege weapons like the battering ram and siege tower – because sometimes, you just need to knock down a wall.


They practice away from crowds.


The helmets were heavy and made of steel, with small holes for eyes.


Body armor was chain link or steel plate

Steel gloves


Full armor


Shield for defense


Medieval swords

  1. Arming Sword: Also known as the knight’s sword, the arming sword was a single-handed, straight, double-edged weapon used primarily during the High Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). It typically had a cruciform (cross-shaped) hilt, a long grip, and a wheel or disc-shaped pommel. Arming swords were versatile and could be used for cutting and thrusting.
  2. Longsword: The longsword evolved from the arming sword and became popular during the Late Middle Ages (14th to 15th century). It featured a longer blade and grip, allowing for two-handed use, which provided greater reach, leverage, and striking power. Longswords were designed for both cutting and thrusting and were often used in combination with a shield or buckler.
  3. Falchion: The falchion was a single-edged sword that resembled a large knife or machete, with a blade that broadened towards the point. This design allowed for powerful chopping and cutting blows. Falchions were used primarily in the 13th and 14th centuries and were favored by infantry and archers for their ability to penetrate armor and deliver devastating strikes.
  4. Greatsword: The greatsword, also known as the Zweihänder or Montante, was a massive two-handed sword with an exceptionally long blade, often measuring over five feet in length. These swords were used primarily in the 15th and 16th centuries and required considerable strength and skill to wield effectively. Greatswords were often employed against pike formations or for breaking through enemy lines.
  5. Bastard Sword: The bastard sword, also known as the hand-and-a-half sword, was a versatile weapon with a longer grip than an arming sword but shorter than a longsword. This allowed for both one-handed and two-handed use, depending on the situation. Bastard swords were popular from the 14th to the 16th centuries and were valued for their adaptability in various combat scenarios.




Combat was brutal

Completely covered in steel but still can get hurt.


Q: Were there any defensive structures or tactics used in medieval times? A: Medieval defense was an art form in itself. Castles were the primary defensive structures, designed to keep attackers at bay with high walls, narrow windows, and often surrounded by a moat. Tactics involved in castle defense could include pouring boiling oil on invaders or ambushing them with arrows from the safety of the battlements.

Q: What were the knights’ favorite weapons? A: Knights are often depicted with swords, and it’s true that the arming sword was a favorite for its balance of weight and killing power. But let’s not forget the lance, used in jousting and cavalry charges. The lance was like the medieval equivalent of a one-time-use rocket launcher – devastating on the charge, but not so handy in close combat.

Q: What’s the most iconic weapon from medieval times? A: That’s like asking someone to pick their favorite child! But if you forced us to choose, it would probably be the sword. Whether a knight’s gleaming arming sword or a Viking’s rugged longsword, these weapons have come to symbolize the Middle Ages in popular culture. Just remember – they were a lot heavier than they look in the movies!

Q: Were medieval weapons only used in war? A: War was their primary function, but medieval weapons also had a role in tournaments and ceremonies. Jousting, for example, was essentially a martial sport where knights charged at each other with lances for the entertainment of the crowd. Swords could also be used in ceremonies such as knighting, where they took on a symbolic role.

Q: How effective were medieval weapons? A: In the hands of a trained warrior, medieval weapons could be deadly effective. But like any tool, their effectiveness depended on how they were used. A longsword was great in a wide-open battlefield but less handy in a crowded castle corridor. Similarly, a crossbow could pierce armor at range, but it was slow to reload and vulnerable in close combat.


Not much of a peep hole in helmet

Medieval weapons list infographic

List of weapons they used in medieval times:

  1. Sword
  2. Longsword
  3. Claymore
  4. Broadsword
  5. Falchion
  6. Scimitar
  7. Battle axe
  8. War hammer
  9. Mace
  10. Morning star
  11. Flail
  12. Lance
  13. Halberd
  14. Poleaxe
  15. Spear
  16. Javelin
  17. Crossbow
  18. Longbow
  19. Shortbow
  20. Recurve bow
  21. Arbalest
  22. Ballista
  23. Trebuchet
  24. Catapult
  25. Siege tower
  26. Battering ram
  27. Sling
  28. Atlatl
  29. Boomerang
  30. Shuriken
  31. Kunai
  32. Throwing axe
  33. Throwing knife
  34. Caltrop
  35. Spiked mace
  36. War pick
  37. Bec de corbin
  38. Ranseur
  39. Glaive
  40. Bardiche
  41. Spetum
  42. Billhook
  43. Lochaber axe
  44. Guisarme